# What are below market rate units?

## Market imbalance examples

Therefore, we can say that it is the quantity that producers are willing to sell and consumers are willing to buy. All this at a price that allows the agreement of both parties. This, in turn, is the equilibrium price of a market in perfect competition. In this theoretical situation there is no shortage or surplus in the market. But the reality is very different, as we will see below.

We start from a market in perfect competition. In this market, there is a supply curve (O) and a demand curve (D). For the sake of simplicity, straight line equations are used. Both represent all producers and consumers. Therefore, they are the production and consumption preferences for a type of good. As seen in the image, they are supply and demand functions. At the end we will see a numerical example to clarify possible doubts.

At equilibrium, the producer and the consumer will agree at a given price, the equilibrium or market price (Pe). At that point, the producer will want to offer a quantity and the consumer will be willing to buy it. This is the equilibrium quantity (Qe), as shown in the graph. Analytically it is calculated by equating the function of Qo and Qd to a price (P) that equals that market equilibrium price and clearing it from the equation.

## What happens if the price is below the break-even point?

If the price were initially lower than the equilibrium price, there would be a shortage, a situation in which the quantity demanded exceeds the quantity supplied. Consumers would not be able to buy as much as they would like, which would put upward pressure on the price.

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## What is equilibrium price in supply and demand?

The equilibrium price is the price at which all suppliers place their goods and services on the market and at which all demanders are willing to purchase them. … It is advisable to read the law of supply and demand.

## What is the equilibrium price and quantity?

When the market price coincides with that of the equilibrium point, the quantity offered and the quantity demanded of the good is the same. The price corresponding to that point is called the equilibrium price.

### What is market equilibrium?

The market price is the price at which a good or service can be purchased in a free market. It is an economic concept of application both in historical aspects of the discipline and in its concrete use in daily life.

The concept has given rise to both technical and theoretical discussions in the development of economic sciences. These discussions range from the definition of what a market is to what is understood by price, difficulties that acquire particular importance in microeconomics, a field in which one of the most important functions of an economist is the determination of prices that maximize a company’s profit. However, the problem also extends to the macroeconomic sphere, where price calculations play a central role in determining the hypothetical economic equilibrium.

Historically, the classical school considered that there are two market prices:[note 1] the one due to competition (or natural price) and the one generated without competition (or monopoly price). In the words of Adam Smith:

### When does the equilibrium price decrease?

If demand shifts more than supply, the new equilibrium price is higher than the initial one. On the other hand, if it is supply that experiences a greater displacement, the equilibrium price decreases.

### What is the market equilibrium point?

Market equilibrium is a situation that occurs when, at the prices offered by the market, those who buy or consume a good or service can purchase the quantities they want. … Through these forces, the quantity produced of each good is determined, as well as the price at which they are sold.

### Break-even price

For the potential customer, the value of the product is manifested in objective and subjective terms, since he has a very particular scale when computing the different attributes of which it is composed, hence the denomination of expensive or cheap that he gives them. However, for the company, price is a very important element in its marketing mix strategy, along with product, distribution and promotion.

Pricing is driven by the company’s desire to make a profit, whose income is determined by the amount of sales made, although this is not directly related to the profits it makes, since if prices are high, total income may be high, but whether this has an impact on profits will depend on the proper determination and balance between the so-called “profit areas”.

They involve the determination of lower limits below which the profitability of the business may be jeopardized. Unless, to the detriment of profitability, the company wants price to play a strategic role, and how? By means of:

### What is the equilibrium quantity?

The equilibrium quantity of a good is that which corresponds to the point at which the supply and demand curves cross in a market, at a given price …. This, in turn, is the equilibrium price of a market in perfect competition. In this theoretical situation there is no shortage or surplus in the market.

### How is the equilibrium quantity calculated?

The formula to find the break-even point is: (P x U) – (Cvu x U) – CF = 0 Where: P: unit selling price. U: break-even units, i.e. units to be sold so that revenues equal costs.

### When the price is above the equilibrium point it is produced:

Consumer surplus arises because of the law of diminishing returns. This means that the first unit we acquire we value highly, but as we acquire additional units our valuation falls.

In graphical terms, consumer surplus is measured as the area under the market demand curve and above the price line. The demand curve measures the amount consumers are willing to pay for each unit consumed. Then, the total area under the demand curve reflects the total utility of consuming the good or service. If we subtract from this area the price we pay for each unit, we obtain the consumer surplus.

Consumer surplus is used in the cost-benefit analysis of regulatory proposals or government programs. We refer, for example, to the evaluation of imposing a maximum price on a product.

Let’s look at an example. Suppose a tourist is walking along a sunny beach and is very thirsty. The first glass of water he buys is priced at 4 euros. The second glass of water he values at 3 euros because he is no longer thirsty. Then, the third glass is valued at 2 euros and the fourth at 1 euro.

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